کد محصول: R109
قیمت فایل ترجمه شده: برای اطلاع از هزینه و مدت زمان انجام ترجمه با پشتیبانی وب سایت تماس حاصل نمایید (۰۹۳۷۲۵۵۵۲۴۰)
تعداد صفحه انگلیسی: ۸
سال نشر: ۲۰۱۹
مقاله انگلیسی ۲۰۱۹ : بررسی ارتباط بین عدالت و انواع مغز در کودکان با اختلال طیف اوتیسم عملکرد بالا
Exploring the relationship between fairness and ‘brain types’ in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder
Existing research typically focuses on only one domain of cognition with regard to fairness—theory of mind or executive function. However, children with High-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) are cognitively impaired in both domains. Moreover, little is known about fairness characteristics in children with HF-ASD in relation to both domains of cognition.
Thirty children with HF-ASD as well as 39 children with typical development (TD) were evaluated in this study. We investigated the development of children’s fairness characteristics as a responder in a mini ultimatum game (UG). The different ‘brain types,’ i.e., with or without HF-ASD, were evaluated using the Empathy Questionnaire-Systemizing Questionnaire (E/SC-Q). Furthermore, we explored the relationship between fairness and brain types using Pearson correlation analyses.
Children in the HF-ASD group were more likely to accept unfair offers than were children in the TD group (χ۲ = ۱۷.۵۱۳, p = .۰۲۵). In the HF-ASD group, the acceptance rate of unfair offers was correlated with the discrepancy score (r = ۰.۳۶۳, p = .۰۴۸), while there were no significant correlations in the TD group. In HF-ASD group, compared with Type S, acceptance rate of unfair offer was significant higher in Extreme Type S ‘brain type’ (F = ۲۸.۵۸۴, p < .۰۰۱). While dividing TD participants by ‘brain type’, there was no significant difference in acceptance rate of unfair offer among five difference ‘brain types’ (F = ۱.۱۳۱, p = .۳۵۸). Stepwise regression revealed that Extreme Type S positively predicted acceptance of unfair offers (F [1, 68] = ۸.۶۹۵, p < .۰۰۱).
Our findings show that children with HF-ASD were more likely to accept an unfair offer; in particular, the more unbalanced the development of empathy and systemizing was, the more significant the unfairness preference observed. Extreme Type S positively predicted the acceptance of unfair offers by children with HF-ASD.
“The way options are framed can induce bias in decision-making” (Shah et al., 2016). Fairness is one of the foundational features of human morality. Across cultures, there is a universal assumption that individuals should behave fairly and value fairly (Henrich et al., 2005; Rochat et al., 2009; Shaw and Olson, 2012). Fairness-related recognition and behavior development are important parts of one’s pro-social development in childhood. Fairness plays an critical role in people’s life, especially in decision-making, pointing to the fact that individuals are concerned not only with their maximum personal benefit but also with the fairness of profit distribution (P. Li et al., 2017). In daily life, people strive for fairness and are even willing to punish unfair behavior such that they pay a price for the sake of fairness. Experimental economic games are often used to measure people’s sense of fairness, such as the dictator game (DG) and the ultimatum game (UG). Paradigms inspired by behavioral and economics are increasing used to investigate social cognitive processes underlying social interactions in psychiatric populations including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Hasler, 2012; Sharp et al., 2012).
ASD is characterized by impairment in social communication and interaction and restricted and repetitive behavior or interests. The behavioral characteristics of HF-ASD abnormality can be understood and interpreted from the perspective of neuropsychology. In 2002, Baron-Cohen and his colleagues proposed the extreme male brain theory (EMB theory), which defined ASD as having two domains of cognitive deficit, namely empathizing and systemizing. ‘Empathizing’ is the drive to identify another person’s emotions and thoughts and to respond to these with an appropriate emotion, which involves theory of mind (ToM). Empathizing allows you to predict a person’s behavior and to care about how others feel (Baron-Cohen, 2002). Systemizing is the drive to analyze or construct systems.
What defines a system is that it follows rules, and when we systemize we are trying to identify the rules that govern the system in order to predict how that system will behave (Baron-Cohen, 2006), which involves parts of executive function. Baron-Cohen and his colleagues suggested that people with ASD show significantly below average empathy and above average systemizing, both of which are traits that lead to the development of the extreme male brain (Baron-Cohen, 2009; Baron-Cohen et al., 2011). This two-factor theory can explain the cluster of both social and nonsocial features in autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, below average empathy is a simple way of explaining social and communication difficulties, while average or even above average systemizing is a way of explaining narrow interests, repetitive behavior, and resistance to change/need for sameness (Baron-Cohen, 1996; Hill, 2004b; Rumsey and Hamburger, 1988).