قیمت فایل ترجمه شده: ۱۰۰۰۰ تومان
تعداد صفحه انگلیسی: ۵
سال نشر: ۲۰۱۳
تعداد صفحه ترجمه فارسی: ۵ صفحه word
مقاله ترجمه شده توسعه کارآفرینی درآفریقا: بررسی کلی و اجمالی
Entrepreneurship development in Africa: an overview
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an over view of the different key factors that are influencing and influenced by the entrepreneurship environment in Africa. Design/methodology/approach – The paper represents the outcome of many comprehensive research programmes undertaken in different countries in Africa and other parts of the world adopting various research methods and approaches. Findings – The most profound and encouraging change in African economies over the past decade has been the rapid advancement towards integration into the global economy. Many of the countries have undertaken significant economic reforms; improving macroeconomic management, instigating conducive private investment climate, liberalizing markets and widening the space for entrepreneurship to drive strong and inclusive growth. However understanding the nature of problems, challenges and opportunities in Africa is a very difficult task for many people outside its territories. Originality/value – Despite the regional coverage of the various issues relating to entrepreneurship development on Africa, it is not possible to have contributions from few countries in the region such as Chad, Somalia, etc., due to the current situation is these countries.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Africa, Sustainable development, Sub Saharan Africa, Entrepreneurialism
Researchers and practitioners have recognized the importance of employee empowerment at the frontline level in the hospitality industry where prompt action is often required to deliver high quality service to customers (Kim et al., 2012; Ottenbacher and Gnoth, 2005; Hartline and Ferrell, 1996; Heskett et al., 1997; Sergeant and Frenkel, 2000). Researchers have also shown that empowered employees are more likely to report higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Kim et al., 2012; Bhatnagar, 2007; Liden et al., 2000). Customer evaluative judgments, such as perceived service quality or satisfaction, are often used as indicators of organizational effectiveness (Schneider et al., 1998; Anderson and Mittal, 2000). Despite abundant theoretical evidence, there is a lack of research linking employee empowerment and customer satisfaction, since integrating employee and customer data can be challenging (de Jong et al., 2008). Apart from methodological issues, the paucity of research in this area can also be due to the cross-disciplinary theoretical foundations required to justify the relationships. An important outcome of coproduction, where service customers participate in the production of their own services, is customer satisfaction, a construct that is often more relevant to consumer behavior and marketing research (Schneider and White, 2004). Consequently, few researchers have explicitly linked organizational practices, such as leadership behaviors and empowerment, to customer satisfaction. A recent stream of research called “linkage research” focuses on connecting the internal functioning of service organizations to customer satisfaction (Schneider et al., 2005; Wiley, 1996). This research suggests that employees’ work experiences directly affect customers’ experiences of the service and thereby customer satisfaction (Oliver, 1997). The “service-profit chain” (Heskett et al., 1997) outlines the links between internal service quality (workplace/job design, employee selection and development, rewards and recognition, and tools for serving customers) and customer satisfaction through employee satisfaction. Using this perspective, the current work investigated the effects of an important organizational mechanism (i.e. empowering leadership) on customer outcomes. Few studies have considered a leader’s role in employee empowerment processes (Konczak et al., 2000). However, diverse leadership behaviors have been examined; for example, transformational leadership has been shown to improve employee outcomes including satisfaction and to reduce job stress (Gill and Mathur, 2007; Gill et al., 2010a, b). Hospitality researchers have examined the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ desire for empowerment (Gill et al., 2010a, b), leadership competency on firm performance (Asree et al., 2010), ethical leadership on managers’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Kim and Brymer, 2011), and leadership roles on organizational learning and effectiveness (Yang, 2010). Most research, including that cited above, examines leadership concepts in totality. A few studies have examined leader empowering behavior (Bennis and Townsend, 1997). Empowering leadership has been linked with enhancement of empowered behavior among hospitality employees (Klidas et al., 2007), and has been positively associated with employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, and team-oriented performance (Srivastava et al., 2006; Konczak et al., 2000). Most research focuses on leader empowering behaviors (LEB) or employee psychological empowerment (PE) as predictors of outcomes such as job satisfaction. To our knowledge, a study by Konczak et al. (2000) is the only study to examine LEB as a predictor of PE. Konczak et al. (2000) found that leader behaviors impact employees’ experience of psychological empowerment. The current work builds on their conceptual framework. Much extant research has sampled managers in manufacturing companies.