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مقاله انگلیسی رابطه ی تحقیق و توسعه و ثبت اختراعات

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دانلود رایگان مقاله بیس انگلیسی

کد محصول: M847

قیمت فایل ترجمه شده: برای اطلاع از هزینه و مدت زمان انجام ترجمه با پشتیبانی وب سایت تماس حاصل نمایید (۰۹۳۷۲۵۵۵۲۴۰)

تعداد صفحه انگلیسی:  ۱۸

سال نشر: ۲۰۱۸

عنوان فارسی:

مقاله انگلیسی ۲۰۱۸ :  تحقیق و توسعه و ثبت اختراعات: آیا خیابان دو طرفه است؟

عنوان انگلیسی:

R&D and patents: is it a two way street?

چکیده فارسی:

این مقاله شواهد تجربی مربوط به ارتباط هزینه های تحقیق و توسعه شرکت ها و ثبت اختراع را با استفاده از آزمون علیت گرنجر ارائه می دهد. بدین منظور ما از پانل شرکت های تولیدی اسپانیا برای دوره ۱۹۹۰ تا ۲۰۱۳ استفاده می کنیم. ما در ابتدا رابطه تحقیق و توسعه و ثبت اختراع در شرکت های تولیدی را به طور کلی مورد بررسی قرار دادیم و سپس، شرکت ها را بر اساس سطح تکنولوژیکی تولید به سه دسته تقسیم کردیم: شرکت هایی با تکنولوژی بالا و متوسط (HMHT)، کم ومتوسط (LMT) و کم (LT). برای کل پانل، نتایج ما از روابط دو طرفه بین تحقیق و توسعه و ثبت اختراعات پشتیبانی می کند و همچنین از دیدگاه سنتی و رویکرد علیت معکوس نیز حمایت می کند (ثبت اختراع باعث تحقیق و توسعه می شود). هنگامی که نمونه به سه سطح تکنولوژی تقسیم می شود، ما همچنین یک رابطه دو طرفه قوی در شرکت های HMHT و یک رابطه ی دو طرفه ضعیف در شرکت های LT پیدا می کنیم. ما هیچ شواهدی از این رابطه ی دو طرفه در شرکت های LMT پیدا نکردیم.

کلید واژه ها: داده های پانل پویا؛ علیت گرنجر؛ثبت اختراعات؛ تحقیق و توسعه؛ اسپانیا؛ سطح فن آوری

ABSTRACT

This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between firms’ R&D expenditure and patent registrations by applying the Granger causality test. We use a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms for the period 1990–۲۰۱۳. We first, examine the R&D-patents relationship in the manufacturing firms as a whole and subsequently, manufacturing was broken down into three groups of firms according to the technological level of the industries to which the firms belonged: high and mediumhigh (HMHT), low medium (LMT) and low (LT) technology firms. For the entire panel, our results provide support for a bidirectional relationship between R&D and patents, supporting both the traditional view and the reverse causality approach (patents cause R&D). When the sample is split into the three technology levels, we also find strong support for a bidirectional relationship in HMHT firms and weak support in LT ones. We found no evidence of this bidirectional link in LMT firms.

KEYWORDS: Dynamic panel data; granger causality; patents; R&D; Spain; technology level

Introduction

It is assumed that R&D investments benefit firms’ competitiveness and economic growth in the longrun. However, R&D spending is only a measure of input of innovation. Effective innovation can onlybe reached when innovations inputs are converted into innovations outputs. There are a quitebroad range of measures of innovation outputs but one of the best-known and most-studiedmeasures of innovation outputs are patents. While it is true that patents have been criticized asan indicator of innovation output for various reasons; the choice of the innovation output indicatorfor empirical purposes is very often based on the availability of the data and on the aim of the study(Beneito 2006).

Recent economic studies on R&D activities reveal an increasing interest in studying the relationshipbetween firms’ R&D investments and patent registrations, particularly in investigating furtherthe causal link between these two indicators. In the traditional body of theoretical literature, thecausation runs from the R&D to the patents. The rationale is that patents are the primary outputof the R&D activity in the sense that more investment in R&D will encourage more inventions,more innovations and more patents (Jaffe 1986; Griliches 1990). More recently, the direction ofcausality has extended and a two-way causality running between R&D and patent has been proposed.In this new approach, it is argued that a reverse causality in the R&D-patents relationshipholds since patent registrations often occur at an early point of the innovation process and mostof the R&D expenditures occur after the registration of patents is made (Stoneman 1983; Arora, Ceccagnoli,and Cohen 2008; Baraldi, Cantabene, and Perani 2014). In addition, patents generate licencingrevenues (Grindley and Teece 1997; Hall and Ziedonis 2001) which can be re-inverted into R&D.This strategy is especially used in high technology industries such as electronics, software, and biotechnology (Andersen 2006).

Besides, it can be argued that the causality between R&D and patents could be industry- specific, that is it may differ according to the technological level of the industries to which firms belong. Firms with different technological opportunities differ in their innovative behaviour.

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the link between firms’ R&D activities and patent registrations by applying the Granger causality test. We use data from the Spanish manufacturing firms during the period 1990–۲۰۱۳. Our innovation indicators are the firm’s real internal R&D expenditures and the patents registration. We first, study manufacturing firms as a whole and then, manufacturing was broken down into three groups of firms according to the technological level of the industries to which the firms belonged. We distinguish between high, low-medium and low technology industries. Highest technology industries are often characterized by a diversity of resources, high (technology and market) entry barriers, and great technological opportunities. It may be expected that high technology firms patenting their inventions are more likely to invest in R&D in the future. Conversely, lower technology industries are characterized by smaller firms, with fewer resources and lower barriers to entry. It may be expected, then, that lower technology firms patenting their inventions are less likely to invest in R&D in the future. Firms in these industries are more likely to patent their inventions at the end of the innovation process.

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