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کد محصول: M794
سال نشر: ۲۰۱۹
نام ناشر (پایگاه داده): الزویر
نام کتاب: Plant Factory Using Artificial Light
نوع مقاله: فصل کتاب (Book Chapter)
تعداد صفحه انگلیسی: ۱۰ صفحه PDF
مقاله انگلیسی ۲۰۱۹ : فن آوری های پیشرفته برای گلخانه های بسیار بزرگ – ادغام رویکردهای مهندسی صنایع و مهندسی سیستم در تولید محصولات زیست محیطی کنترل شده
Advanced Technologies for Large- Scale Plant Factories—Integration of Industrial and Systems Engineering Approach in Controlled Environment Crop Production
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Plant factory using sole source electric lighting has been recognized as a unique production facility that is rapidly developing worldwide. The production capacity and facilities vary from a reach-in growth chamber for small-scaled applications such as residential kitchen or restaurant use to large-scaled warehouse applications with annual production capacity for several million high-value crop items. Currently, the largest production facility in North America is AeroFarms, located in Newark, NJ, with an annual production capacity of ~1000 tons of leafy greens. The types of crops grown in plant factories are leafy greens (e.g., lettuce and basil), medicinal plants (e.g., cannabis), small fruit (e.g., berries), and high-value transplants (e.g., grafted vegetable seedlings). Among them, commercial production of grafted vegetable seedlings in plant factories has been successfully introduced in Japan and the US, beginning in early 2000s [1,2]. Vegetable grafting has been widely used to mitigate the impact of soil-borne diseases, to enhance yields, as well as to increase tolerance against environmental stresses (e.g., low temperature) since the first application for intensive watermelon cultivations in the 1920s . Growing grafted vegetable seedlings requires precise management of production schedules as well as controlled environments, which justify the use of plant factory.
While automation has been perceived as a crucial technological advancement needed to support this newly emerging controlled environment industry, feasible technologies with affordable costs and liability still need to be developed. As a consequence of slow R&D progress in automation, much of the critical work/tasks at plant factories are still mostly performed manually. Plant factories are generally considered as scalable systems for the “hardware” of the buildings, production systems such as multitiered shelving units, and lighting systems. However, software to effectively operate the hardware should be developed to optimize labor and other resources to maximize productivity and profitability. Use of a fully controlled environment with sole source electric lighting can make production more consistent and predictable; yet such facilities still require experienced production managers (or “Growers”) who understand horticultural crop production as well as environmental control engineering. The success of plant factories is largely dependent on the skill set of these skillful growers even in fully controlled climate conditions. Sensors, automation, and information/data technologies can assist growers, but their costs are still prohibitive, especially when their performance is affected by many factors including “uncertainty.” Biological systems (e.g., seeds, crops, pathogens, pests, and human workers) are typically the source of uncertainty and, therefore, make production management extremely challenging. Crop production involves various growth stages, environmental conditions, and biological genotypic differences (e.g., plant species and cultivars) responding to varied environmental conditions. These variables create a largely complex biological system that growers need to deal with on a day-to-day basis.
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