قیمت فایل ترجمه شده: ۱۰۰۰۰ تومان
تعداد صفحه انگلیسی:۱۰
سال نشر: ۲۰۱۰
تعداد صفحه ترجمه فارسی: ۱۱ صفحه word
مقاله ترجمه شده تجارت منصفانه چای رویبوس؛ رابطه تولید کنندگان آفریقای جنوبی و بازارهای مصرفی آمریکا
Fair Trade Rooibos tea: Connecting South African producers and American consumer markets
This article analyzes the recent growth and configuration of Fair Trade networks connecting South African Rooibos tea producers with American consumer markets. As we demonstrate, Fair Trade’s growth in the Rooibos sector engages key issues of black empowerment, land reform, and sustainable development in post-Apartheid South Africa. Fair Trade networks provide small-scale black Rooibos producers with critical markets. Most significantly, the Wupperthal and Heiveld cooperatives have upgraded into processing and packaging and their jointly owned Fairpackers facility now exports shelf-ready Rooibos tea. Analyzing the nature of US Fair Trade Rooibos buyers and their South African sourcing arrangements, we identify key variations in Fair Trade commitment and engagement between mission-driven and market-driven distributors. While mission-driven buyers engage small-scale Rooibos cooperatives in multifaceted partnership networks, market-driven buyers pursue conventional sourcing strategies favoring purchases from large plantations and exporters. We conclude that tensions between a radical and commercial orientation toward Fair Trade in Rooibos tea networks in many ways mirror those in the broader movement.
Fair Trade has emerged over recent years as a powerful critique of conventional global inequalities and a promising approach to alleviating poverty and bolstering environmental sustainability in the global South through a strategy of ‘‘trade not aid”. This initiative offers agricultural producers in the global South better prices, stable market links, and resources for social and environmental projects. In the global North, Fair Trade promotes responsible consumption practices and provides consumers with product options that uphold high social and environmental standards. Though Fair Trade networks comprise a minor share of the world market, certified sales generate over US$ 2 billion a year and are growing rapidly. There are now almost 600 Fair Trade producer groups in Latin America, Africa and Asia selling 18 certified products across North America and Europe (FLO, 2008a). Fair Trade has come to represent a key component in the alternative globalization agenda due to its ability to combine visionary goals with practical engagements in fostering social justice (Raynolds and Murray, 2007). This initiative joins a growing array of market-based efforts addressing progressive concerns through the sale of alternative, typically certified, commodities. Fair Trade is akin to social labeling initiatives in apparel and footwear and environmental labeling initiatives in food and forest products (Gereffi et al., 2001), yet distinguishes itself from these other efforts via its breadth in incorporating both social and environmental concerns and its depth in tackling both trade and production conditions (Raynolds, 2000, 2002). The call for Fair Trade in the agro-food sector has gained wide support across the global South due to its focus on addressing colonial-based North/South inequalities and peasant marginalization. This article analyzes the recent growth and configuration of Fair Trade networks connecting South African Rooibos tea producers with American consumer markets. Although South Africa is a relatively new participant in Fair Trade, certified production in tea and other commodities is expanding very rapidly. Given Apartheid’s legacy in racially skewing the distribution of land and other resources, the need for enhancing social justice in South African agriculture is acute. As we demonstrate, Fair Trade’s growth in the Rooibos tea sector engages key national policy concerns related to black empowerment, land reform, and sustainable development. Pursuing a commodity networks analysis, we investigate the nature of the Fair Trade ties between South African Rooibos producers and US tea buyers. This study identifies key variations in Fair Trade buyers and their purchasing arrangements which shape the opportunities for small-scale black1 South African tea producers